Hippocrates is usually credited with applying this idea to medicine. In contrast to Alcmaeon, Hippocrates suggested that humors are the vital bodily fluids: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. Alcmaeon and Hippocrates posited that an extreme excess or deficiency of any of the humors (bodily fluid) in a person can be a sign of illness. Hippocrates, and then Galen, suggested that a moderate imbalance in the mixture of these fluids produces behavioral patterns. One of the treatises attributed to Hippocrates, On the Nature of Man, describes the theory as follows:
The Human body contains blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. These are the things that make up its constitution and cause its pains and health. Health is primarily that state in which these constituent substances are in the correct proportion to each other, both in strength and quantity, and are well mixed. Pain occurs when one of the substances presents either a deficiency or an excess, or is separated in the body and not mixed with others. The body depends heavily on the four humors because their balanced combination helps to keep people in good health. Having the right amount of humor is essential for health. The pathophysiology of disease is consequently brought on by humor excesses and/or deficiencies. The existence of fundamental biochemical substances and structural components in the body remains a compellingly shared point with Hippocratic beliefs, despite the fact that current science has moved away from those four Hippocratic humors.
Even though humorism theory had several models that used 2, 3, and 5 components, the most famous model consists of the four humors described by Hippocrates and developed further by Galen. The four humors of Hippocratic medicine are black bile (Greek: μέλαινα χολή, melaina chole), yellow bile (Greek: ξανθη χολή, xanthe chole), phlegm (Greek: φλέγμα, phlegma), and blood (Greek: αἷμα, haima). Each corresponds to one of the traditional four temperaments. Based on Hippocratic medicine, it was believed that for a body to be healthy, the four humors should be balanced in amount and strength. The proper blending and balance of the four humors was known as \"eukrasia\".
These terms only partly correspond to modern medical terminology, in which there is no distinction between black and yellow bile, and phlegm has a very different meaning. It was believed that the humors were the basic substances from which all liquids in the body were made. Robin Fåhræus (1921), a Swedish physician who devised the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, suggested that the four humors were based upon the observation of blood clotting in a transparent container. When blood is drawn in a glass container and left undisturbed for about an hour, four different layers can be seen: a dark clot forms at the bottom (the \"black bile\"); above the clot is a layer of red blood cells (the \"blood\"); above this is a whitish layer of white blood cells (the \"phlegm\"); the top layer is clear yellow serum (the \"yellow bile\").
Many Greek texts were written during the golden age of the theory of the four humors in Greek medicine after Galen. One of those texts was an anonymous treatise called On the Constitution of the Universe and of Man, published in the mid-19th century by J.L. Ideler. In this text, the author establishes the relationship between elements of the universe (air, water, earth, fire) and elements of the man (blood, yellow bile, black bile, phlegm). He said that:
Yellow bile was associated with a choleric nature (ambitious, decisive, aggressive, and short-tempered). It was thought to be fluid found within the gallbladder, or in excretions such as vomit and feces. The associated qualities for yellow bile are hot and dry with the natural association of summer and fire. It was believed that an excess of this humor in an individual would result in emotional irregularities such as increased anger or behaving irrationally.
Black bile was associated with a melancholy nature, the word \"melancholy\" itself deriving from the Greek for \"black bile\", μέλαινα χολή (melaina kholé). Depression was attributed to excess or unnatural black bile secreted by the spleen.Cancer was also attributed to an excess of black bile concentrated in a specific area. The seasonal association of black bile was to autumn as the cold and dry characteristics of the season reflect the nature of man.
Humors were believed to be produced via digestion as the final products of hepatic digestion. Digestion is a continuous process taking place in every animal, and it can be divided into four sequential stages. The gastric digestion stage, the hepatic digestion stage, the vascular digestion stage, and the tissue digestion stage. Each stage digests food until it becomes suitable for use by the body. In gastric digestion, food is made into chylous, which is suitable for the liver to absorb and carry on digestion. Chylous is changed into chymous in the hepatic digestion stage. Chymous is composed of the four humors: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. These four humors then circulate in the blood vessels. In the last stage of digestion, tissue digestion, food becomes similar to the organ tissue for which it is destined.
Typical 18th-century practices such as bleeding a sick person or applying hot cups to a person were based on the humoral theory of imbalances of fluids (blood and bile in those cases). Methods of treatment like bloodletting, emetics and purges were aimed at expelling a surplus of a humor. Apocroustics were medications intended to stop the flux of malignant humours to a diseased body part.
16th-century Swiss physician Paracelsus further developed the idea that beneficial medical substances could be found in herbs, minerals and various alchemical combinations thereof. These beliefs were the foundation of mainstream Western medicine well into the 17th century. Specific minerals or herbs were used to treat ailments simple to complex, from an uncomplicated upper respiratory infection to the plague. For example, chamomile was used to decrease heat, and lower excessive bile humor. Arsenic was used in a poultice bag to 'draw out' the excess humor(s) that led to symptoms of the plague. Apophlegmatisms, in pre-modern medicine, were medications chewed in order to draw away phlegm and humors.
Theophrastus and others developed a set of characters based on the humors. Those with too much blood were sanguine. Those with too much phlegm were phlegmatic. Those with too much yellow bile were choleric, and those with too much black bile were melancholic. The idea of human personality based on humors contributed to the character comedies of Menander and, later, Plautus.Through the neo-classical revival in Europe, the humor theory dominated medical practice, and the theory of humoral types made periodic appearances in drama. The humors were an important and popular iconographic theme in European art, found in paintings, tapestries, and sets of prints.
Gastrointestinal bleeding is internal bleeding from the esophagus, stomach, or the small intestine. It can be mild or severe and life-threatening. If the bleeding is mild, upper abdominal pain or black stools may be your first sign of bleeding.
If the blood leaks, it will go into your stomach. If it is completely digested, you will have black or tarry stool. If it is partially digested, it will be vomited as coffee ground vomit. If the vessels burst, it often leads to bright red vomit.
Nineteenth-century art historian John Addington Symonds coined the term hæmatomania (blood madness) for the extremely bloodthirsty behaviour of a number of disturbed rulers like Ibrahim II of Ifriqiya (850-902) and Ezzelino da Romano (1194-1259). According to Symonds, this mental pathology was linked to melancholy and caused by an excess of black bile. I explore the historical credibility of this theory of 'wild melancholy', a type of melancholia that crucially deviates from the lethargic main type. I conclude that in its pure form Symonds' black bile theory of hæmatomania was never a broadly supported perspective, but can be traced back to the nosology of the ninth-century physician Ishaq ibn Imran, who practised at the Aghlabid court, to which the sadistic Ibrahim II belonged.
Black bile humor, in the context of this lesson, is not something that would make you laugh. It was part of a medical or mental health concept created by Hippocrates, and refined by ancient Greek and Roman physicians. Hippocrates was a physician from the Greek island of Kos, and lived from about 460 BC-370 BC. His thought was that when the human system had too much humor, the result would be some type of mental or physical illness that manifested in the body.
Humor in this context is not the type of humor that relates to a joke. Instead, humors, which consisted of black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm were then thought to be the four basic substances that filled the human body. When these were balanced, a person was thought to have good health.
In Humorism, Black Bile was thought to control emotions and bodily health, like all humors. If the biles were unbalanced slightly in a person, personality was created. On the other hand, if a person had a substantial imbalance of the humors, potentially harmful effects may take place. Doctors who learned the ideas and techniques of Humorism looked for symptoms in patients of either too much or too little black bile and prescribed treatment accordingly.
Black Bile was thought to originate in the spleen, meaning that melancholy and depression were also blamed on the spleen. With an overproduction of Black Bile, a person may have appeared cold and dry, sad in disposition, and overall doubtful of the world. The person would become absorbed with the challenges of his/her own life with no scope of the world around them. The person often looked similar to a full moon, pale and cool and surrounded by darkness. Because of the mopey, sometimes lazy ideal of too much black bile, cats were also used to symbolize the affliction. 59ce067264